Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute
The Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute (BCVI)
was formed in 2004 to integrate clinical services at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in cardiology, cardiac surgery, vascular surgery, and cardiovascular imaging. The Institute is directed by Dr. Patrick McCarthy (Cardiothoracic Surgery). Dr. Charles Davidson (Cardiology) is its Medical Director. The BCVI has created six centers of excellence, including the Centers for Heart Failure, Vascular Medicine, Valvular Heart Disease, Coronary Disease, Atrial Fibrillation, and Women's Cardiovascular Health. The BCVI also houses the cardiovascular database and the Cardiovascular Clinical Trials Unit
(CTU). Associate Directors are Drs. William Pearce (Vascular Surgery) and Donald Lloyd-Jones (Interim for Clinical Trials).
Cardiovascular Research Activities
The diverse interests of division faculty members provide many opportunities for participation in clinical and basic science research. A research mentor is identified early in the fellowship. It is expected that each fellow will conduct individual research projects, present at least one paper at a national scientific meeting, and submit at least one paper to a peer-reviewed journal. Opportunities are available for fellows wishing to pursue training toward Master Degree in Public Health (MPH
) or Clinical Investigation (MSCI
). A structured program in clinical investigation is available for all fellows free of charge through the Northwestern University Clinical Trials Unit
The Cardiovascular CTU consists of 4,000 square feet of space, a separate independent research computer network, a fax/internet-based data entry system, and data processing and analysis capabilities. In addition to serving as a unit for administration of single center and multicenter clinical trials, the CTU supports core administrative services. The unit support services include biostatistical support, data management support, trial design, clinical trial management support, and regulatory compliance.
The basic research activities of the division are closely linked to the Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute
. Located in the Tarry Research and Education Building, this institute focuses on state-of-the-art cardiovascular research using interdepartmental and interdisciplinary approaches. As part of its mission, it provides leadership, services, and core physical facilities for investigators at the Medical School and affiliated McGaw Medical Center hospitals. Financial support is also provided for research training, developing faculty investigators, initiating research projects, and sponsoring special programs and visiting scholars.
D i v i s i o n o f C a r d i o l o g y
F e l l o w s' B i b l i o g r a p h y
Ansari A, Rigolin VH. Infective endocarditis: an update on the role of echocardiography. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2010;12: 265-271.
Banthia S, Knight BP, Jacobson JT.. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep. 2010;3:286-293.
Beohar N, Rapp J, Pandya S, Losordo DW. Rebuilding the damaged heart: the potential of cytokines and growth factors in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1287-1297.
Berry JD, Prineas RJ, Van Horn L, Passman R, Larson J, Goldberger J, Snetselaar L, Tinker L, Liu K, Lloyd-Jones DM. Dietary fish intake and incident atrial fibrillation (from the Women's Health Initiative). Am J Cardiol. 2010;105: 844-848.
Bloomfield GS, Huffman MD. Global chronic disease research training for fellows: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities. Circulation. 2010;121:1365-1370.
Campia U, Nodari S, Gheorghiade M. Acute heart failure with low cardiac output: can we develop a short-term inotropic agent that does not increase adverse events? Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2010;7:100-109.
Gheorghiade M, Albaghdadi M, Zannad F, Fonarow GC, Böhm M, Gimpelewicz C, Botha J, Moores S, Lewis EF, Rattunde H, Maggioni A. Rationale and design of the multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT). Eur J Heart Fail 2011;13:100-106.
Goonewardena SN, Blair JE, Manuchehry A, Brennan JM, Keller M, Reeves R, Price A, Spencer KT, Puthumana J, Gheorghiade M. Use of hand carried ultrasound, B-type natriuretic peptide, and clinical assessment in identifying abnormal left ventricular filling pressures in patients referred for right heart catheterization. J Card Fail. 2010;16:69-75.
Huffman MD, Galloway JM. Cardiovascular health in indigenous communities: successful programs. Heart Lung Circ. 2010;19:351-360.
Huffman MD, Kaufman SR, Saint S. A new approach to resident morning report: introducing "VAVUM". Intern Emerg Med. 2010;5:81-2.
Huffman MD, Prabhakaran D. Heart failure epidemiology and prevention in India. Natl Med J India. 2010;23:283-8.
Jacobson JT, Weiner JB. Management of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease. Cardiovasc Ther. 2010;28:255-263.
Johnson NP, Holly TA, Goldberger JJ. QT dynamics early after exercise as a predictor of mortality. Heart Rhythm. 2010;7:1077-1084.
Keeling AN, Johnson NP, Farrelly C, Mahajan A, Dill KE, Losordo DW, Malaisrie SC, Benson AB. Right atrial Merkel cell carcinoma metastasis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:496.
Kohli P, Gulati M. Exercise stress testing in women: going back to the basics. Circulation. 2010;122:2570-2580.
Koshelev M, Sarma S, Price RE, Wehrens XH, Cooper TA. Heart-specific overexpression of CUGBP1 reproduces functional and molecular abnormalities of myotonic dystrophy type 1. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1066-1075.
Laing ST, Gluckman TJ, Weinberg KM, Lahiri MK, Ng J, Goldberger JJ. Autonomic effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2010 Sep. [Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1097/HCR.0b013e3181f1fda0]
Marma AK, Berry JD, Ning H, Persell SD, Lloyd-Jones DM. Distribution of 10-year and lifetime predicted risks for cardiovascular disease in US adults: findings from the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 to 2006. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3:8-14.
O'Connor CM, Miller AB, Blair JE, Konstam MA, Wedge P, Bahit MC, Carson P, Haass M, Hauptman PJ, Metra M, Oren RM, Patten R, Piña I, Roth S, Sackner-Bernstein JD, Traver B, Cook T, Gheorghiade M. Causes of death and rehospitalization in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: results from Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) program. Am Heart J. 2010;159:841-849.
Pandya SB, Kim YH, Meyers SN, Davidson CJ, Flaherty JD, Park DW, Mediratta A, Pieper K, Reyes E, Bonow RO, Park SJ, Beohar N. Drug-eluting stents versus bare metal stents in unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2010;3:602-611.
Rubenstein JC, Freher M, Kadish A, Goldberger JJ. Diurnal heart rate patterns in inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33:911-919.
Sarma S, Ardehali H, Gheorghiade M. Enhancing the metabolic substrate: PPAR-alpha agonists in heart failure. Heart Fail Rev. 2010 Nov 23. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21104312.
Sarma S, Gheorghiade M. Nutritional assessment and support of the patient with acute heart failure. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010;16:413-418.
Sarma S, Li N, van Oort RJ, Reynolds C, Skapura DG, Wehrens XHT. Genetic inhibition of PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 prevents dystrophic cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107:13165-13170.
Sparano DM, Kohli P, Gulati M. A 63 year old woman with a pericardial effusion, bilateral pleural effusions, and ascites: is the whole greater than the sum of its parts? Echocardiogr. 2010;27:454-459.
Weiner J, Goldberger JJ. Pocket salvage in patients with infected device pocket and limited vascular access: a viable last resort? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010 Oct 4. [Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02925.x.]
Weiner J, Knight BP. Intermittent loss of an early-diastolic potential during sinus rhythm in a patient with scar-based right ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Wilkins JT, Lloyd-Jones DM. Biomarkers for coronary heart disease clinical risk prediction: a critical appraisal. Prev Cardiol. 2010;13:160-165.
Greenstein E, Rosenthal JE. Heart rate monitors. In: Goldberger JJ, Ng J, eds. Practical Signal and Image Processing Concepts for Clinical Cardiology. London: Springer. 2010:303-317. Tempelhof M, Rao SV. Bleeding and the acute coronary syndrome. In Theroux P, ed. Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Science.2010:322-330.
Anjan VY, Bonow RO, Puthumana J, Ansari A, Zareba KM, Lapin BR, Akhter N, McCarthy PM, Rigolin, VH. Right ventricular assessment independently predicts late mortality in valve surgery. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23:B71.
Arora M, Sparano D, Johnson NP, O’Connell C, Holly TA, Gulati M. Temporal effect on gender differences in patients undergoing evaluation for coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:A138.
Ballapuram K, Ansari AH, Zhao Q., Sparano D, Lee R., Maganti K., Left atrial volume index assessment: is there a difference between the proposed 2D methodologies? J Am Soc Echocardiogr, 2010;23:B21.
Fox JM, Johnson NP, Blair JE, Krichavsky MZ, Davidson CJ, Flaherty JD. Impact of cardiology fellow learning curve on transradial catheterization procedures. Cathet Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;75:S157.
Garg PK, Liu K, Ferrucci L, Guralnick JM, Criqui MH, Tian L, Sufit R, Nishida T, Tao H, Liao Y, McDermott MM. Impaired peroneal nerve function is associated with adverse calf muscle characteristics and functional impairment in peripheral arterial disease. Circulation. 2010;122:A9444.
Garg PK, McClelland RL, Jenny NS, Criqui MH, Liu K, Polak JF, Jorgensen NW, Cushman M. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is not associated with impairments in endothelial function: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2010;122:A10415.
Huffman MD. Sex differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in India: results from the Detection and Management of Coronary Heart Disease (DEMAT) registry. Circulation. 2010;122:A13324.
Ogunyankin KO, Montgomery DE, Puthumana JJ, Schuster DJ. Longitudinal two-dimensional speckle tracking indices on rest echocardiogrpahic images predicts significant coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:A86.
Pandya SB, Meyers SN, Davidson CJ, Mediratta A, Pieper K, Reyes E, Bonow RO, Beohar N. Drug-eluting stents versus bare metal stents in unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis: a meta-analysis. Cathet Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;75:S112.
Raval Z, Johnson NP, Schimmel Jr. DR, Holly TA. SPECT MPI: Prognostic value of epicardial territory defects and impact of referral patterns. J Nucl Cardiol. 2010;17:748.
Rines A, Burke M, Ardehali H. Snf1-related kinase (SNRK) increases cardiomyocyte glycolytic flux, but not aerobic metabolism, and reduces oxidant-induced cell death in cardiomyocytes. Circulation. 2010;122:A18469.
Rines A, Burke M, Ghanefar M, Ardehali H. Sucrose non-fermenting (Snf1)-related kinase (SNRK) enhances cellular energy and cell survival. Circ Res. 2010;107:P174.
Walsh JA, SolimanEZ, Prineas R, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Ning H, Lloyd-Jones DM. Association of cardiovascular risk factors with incident ECG-LVH and increasing LVMI in a biracial population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, Circulation. 2010;122: A14537.
Wilkins J, Ning H, Berry J, Lloyd-Jones DM. Lifetime risk for total cardiovascular disease by sex and risk factor burden: Cardiovascular Lifetime Risk Pooling Project. Circulation. 2010;122:A21180.
Wilkins JT, Ning H, Gidding SS, Polak JF, Lloyd-Jones DM. Associations between a parental history of premature cardiovascular disease and coronary calcium and carotid intima-media thickness: the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. Circulation. 2010;122:A17507.
Zareba KM, Bonow RO, Ansari A, Puthumana J, Anjan VY, Lapin BR, Akhter N, McCarthy PM, Rigolin VH. Gender based differences in left and right ventricular size and function in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:A148.
Berry JD, Lloyd-Jones DM. Traditional risk factors across short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-up in men and women. Cardiol Rev. 2009;26:30-34.
Berry JD, Liu K, Folsom AR, Lewis CE, Carr JJ, Polak J, Shea SJ, Sidney S, O’Leary DH, Chan C, Lloyd-Jones DM. Prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adults with low short-term but high lifetime estimated risk for cardiovascular disease: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2009; 119:382-389.
Blair JE, Khan S, Konstam MA, Swedberg K, Zannad F, Burnett JC Jr, Grinfeld L, Maggioni AP, Udelson JE, Zimmer CA, Ouyang J, Chen CF, Gheorghiade M; EVEREST Investigators. Weight changes after hospitalization for worsening heart failure and subsequent re-hospitalization and mortality in the EVEREST trial. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:1666-1673.
Flaherty JD, Bax JJ, De Luca L, Rossi JS, Davidson CJ, Filippatos G, Liu PP, Konstam MA, Greenberg B, Mehra MR, Breithardt G, Pang PS, Young JB, Fonarow GC, Bonow RO,Gheorghiade M. Acute heart failure syndromes in patients with coronary artery disease early assessment and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:254-262.
Gheorghiade M, Khan S, Blair JE, Harinstein ME, Krum H, Mukherjee R, Pitt B. The effects of eplerenone on length of stay and total days of heart failure hospitalization after myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Am Heart J. 2009;158:437-443.
Greenstein E, Frazin LJ. A fellow's perspective on handheld echo during cardiology rounds: "Me and Charlie down by the bedside." Echocardiography. 2009;26:742-743.
Gupta R, Tongers J, Losordo DW. Human studies of angiogenic gene therapy. Circ Res. 2009;105:724-736.
Huffman MD, Bonow RO. Clinical practice guidelines and scientific evidence. JAMA. 2009; 302:144-145
Huffman MD, Kaufman SR, Saint S. A new approach to resident morning report: introducing “VAVUM”. Intern Emerg Med. 2010;5:81-82.
Kadish AH. Rubenstein JC. Connecting the dots: the relevance of scar in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:1146-1147.
Khan H, Metra M, Blair JE, Vogel M, Harinstein ME, Filippatos GS, Sabbah HN, Porchet H, Valentini G, Gheorghiade M. Istaroxime, a first in class new chemical entity exhibiting SERCA-2 activation and Na-K-ATPase inhibition: a new promising treatment for acute heart failure syndromes? Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14:277-287.
Lee DC, Johnson NP. Quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow by magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2009;2:761-770.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Walsh JA, Prineas RJ, Ning H, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Shea S, Detrano RC, Tandri H, Greenland P. Association of electrocardiographic abnormalities with coronary artery calcium and carotid intimal-medial thickness in individuals without clinical evidence of coronary heart disease: from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Cardiol. 2009;104:1086-1091.
Mathur N, Sood S, Wang S, van Oort RJ, Sarma S, Li N, Skapura DG, Bayle JH, Valderrabano M, Wehrens XH. Sudden infant death syndrome in mice with an inherited mutation in RyR2. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009;2:677-685.
Mosley WJ, Lloyd-Jones DM. Epidemiology of hypertension in the elderly. Clin Geriatric Med. 2009;25:179-189.
Pang PS, Konstam MA, Krasa HB, Swedberg K, Zannad F, Blair JE, Zimmer C, Teerlink JR, Maggioni AP, Burnett JC Jr, Grinfeld L, Ouyang J, Udelson JE, Gheorghiade M. Effects of tolvaptan on dyspnoea relief from the EVEREST trials. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:2233-2240.
Passman R, Banthia S, Galvez D, Sheldon T, Kadish A.The effects of rate-adaptive atrial pacing versus ventricular backup pacing on exercise capacity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. PACE. 2009;32:1-6.
Rubenstein JC, Kim MH, Jacobson JT. A novel method for sinus node modification and phrenic nerve protection in re-sistant cases.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009;20:689-691.
Shah SJ, Blair JE, Filippatos GS, Macarie C, Ruzyllo W, Korewicki J, Bubenek-Turconi SI, Ceracchi M, Bianchetti M, Carminati P, Kremastinos D, Grzybowski J, Valentini G, Sabbah HN, Gheorghiade M. Effects of istaroxime on diastolic stiffness in acute heart failure syndromes: results from the Hemodynamic, Echocardiographic, and Neuro-hormonal Effects of Istaroxime, a Novel Intravenous Inotropic and Lusitropic Agent: a Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure (HORIZON-HF) trial. Am Heart J. 2009;157:1035-1041.
Tempelhof M. Comparative role of angiotensin receptor blockers versus other agents in the management of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and nephropathy. South Med J. 2009;102:1201-1202.
Tempelhof M. Personal digital assistants: a review of current and potential utilization among residents. Teach Learn Med. 2009;21:100-104.
Tempelhof M, Garman KS, Langman MK, Adams MB. Leveraging time and learning style, iPod vs realtime attend-ance at a series of medicine residents conferences: a rando-mised controlled trial. Inform Prim Care. 2009;17:87-94.
Tempelhof M, Gray AL, Wallace TW. An interesting case of positional hypoxia: the effect of multiple synergistic pathological conditions. South Med J. 2009;102:211-213.
Tempelhof M, Wang T. Use of clinical risk stratification systems among patients with acute coronary syndrome. Acute Cor Synd J. 2009;102:230-238.
Wilkins J, Lloyd-Jones DM. Short-term and lifetime risk estimation for cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2009;3:144-149.
Wu Y, Gao Z, Chen B, Koval OM, Singh MV, Guan X, Hund TJ, Kutschke W, Sarma S, Grumbach IM, Wehrens XH, Mohler PJ, Song LS, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II is required for fight or flight sinoatrial node physiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106:5972-5977.
Ansari A, Puthamana J. The ischemic cascade. In: Herzog E, Chaudhry F, eds. Echocardiography in Acute Coronary Syndrome. London: Springer. 2009:149-160
Bergner D, Chicos A, Banthia S, Wang N, Lahiri M, Ng J, Kadish A, Goldberger J. Increased sympathetic activation in patients with coronary artery disease after exercise: a potential mediator of increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Heart Rhythm. 2009;6:S69.
Berry J, Willis B, Wright B, Lakosi S, Haskell W, Lloyd-Jones DM. Lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease death for fitness levels in adult men: findings from the Cooper Clinic Longitudinal Study. Circulation. 2009;120:S486.
Cotts WG, Tambur AR, Klein L, Grady K, Lapin B, Subacius H, Ferguson G, Schupbach E, Ramon D, Zeigler S, Kansal P, O’Connell JB, Montpetit M, McGee EC. Impact of virtual crossmatch on outcomes in heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;27;S-151.
Gold MR, Theuns DA, Knight BP, Sturdivant JL, Ellenbogen KA, Gupta S, Berry JD, Ayers CR, Peshock RM, Khera A, de Lemos JA, Patel PC, Markham DW, Lloyd-Jones DM, Drazner MH. Left ventricular hypertrophy and lifetime predicted risk for cardiovascular disease: the Dallas Heart Study. Circulation. 2009;120:S545.
Ichikawa Y, Potini V, Sun L, Mutharasan RK, Fathi R, Nagpal V, Ardehali H. Mitochondrial ATP-binding capsette protein-1 plays a role in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and cytosolic iron sulphur protein assembly. Circ Res. 2009;105: e21.
Ichikawa Y, Potini V, Sun L, Mutharasan RK, Ghanefar M, Wu R, Ardehali H. Mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette protein-1 plays a role in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly. Circulation. 2009; 120:S744.
Johnson NP, Holly TA, Bonow RO, Wu E. Resting SPECT defects add prognostic information to ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:A295.
Johnson NP, Holly TA, Goldberger JJ. QT Dynamics early after exercise as a predictor of mortality. Circulation. 2009; 120:S634.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Berry JD, Ning H, Cai X, Goldberger JJ. Lifetime risk for sudden cardiac death at selected index ages and by risk factor strata and race: Cardiovascular Lifetime Risk Pooling Project. Circulation. 2009;120:S416-417.
Marma AK, Berry JD, Ning H, Persell SD, Lloyd-Jones DM. Distribution of 10-year and lifetime predicted risks for cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 to 2006. Circulation. 2009;120:S429-430.
Mutharasan RK, Nagpal V, Fathi R, Ichikawa Y, Ardehali H. MicroRNA-210 is upregulated in cardiomyocytes in response to hypoxia through p53- and Akt-dependent pathways and exerts cytoprotective effects. Circulation. 2009;120:S736.
Pons G, Pellegrini E, Slimani L, Johnson NP, Broisat A, Calizzano A, Martin A, Vanzetto G, Riou LM, Fagret D, Ghezzi C. Myocardial perfusion heterogeneity correlates with capillary density in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2009;120:S362.
Schimmel DR, Dyer SP, Leonard SM, Johnson NP, Holly TA. Increased survival in walking adenosine stress patients with normal SPECT. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:A293.
Schimmel DR, Johnson NP, Holly TA. Myocardial ischemia threshold by SPECT for revascularization survival benefit. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:A293.
Shah RU, Johnson NP, Montpetit MC, Schupbach E, Grady KL, O’Connell JB, McGee EC, Cotts WG, Klein L. Development of metabolic syndrome during the first year after heart transplantation is associated with transplant vasculopathy. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;27;S-200.
Sweis R, Berry JD, Ning H, Dyer AR, Lloyd-Jones DM. Lifetime risks for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease endpoints by smoking status in men and women at selected ages: the Cardiovascular Lifetime Risk Pooling Project. Circulation. 2009;120:S432.
Walsh JA, Prineas RJ, Arnold AM, Psaty BM, Ning H, Kumar A, Lloyd-Jones DM. Burden of isolated minor ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities and prognosis in adults ≥65 years old: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation. 2009;119:e281.
Walsh JA, III, Prineas R, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Ning H, Soliman EZ, Lloyd-Jones DM. Minor ST segment and T wave abnormalities are associated with common carotid intima-media thickness but not with coronary artery calcium in a middle-aged, biracial population: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Circulation. 2009;120:S539.
Walsh JA, III, Prineas R, Daviglus M, Ning H, Liu K, Lewis CE, Sidney S, Iribarren C, Schreiner PJ, Lloyd-Jones DM. Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in a middle-aged, biracial population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Circulation. 2009;120: S479.
Wilcox JE, Cotts WG, Zeigler S, Kansal P, O’Connell JB, Grady KL, Ferguson G, McGee EC, Klein L. “Long-term effects of sildenafil on pulmonary pressures and right heart function in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;27;S-226.